Stress/ Flexibility Analysis

Course Description

This Basic course on Piping Static Thermal Analysis/ Flexibility Analysis covers the design requirements of various Piping Design codes in terms of critical piping from the point of view of temperature, pressure, wind and seismic loading conditions & loading due to process anomalies if any e.g. PSV pop up. It imparts knowledge of the importance of Stress Analysis in all aspects of piping engineering from viz. Piping Specification, Piping Layout, and certain aspects of fabrication, erection and inspection / testing. It gives in-depth knowledge of Pipe Support Engineering. It also enables understanding the critical applications of spring hangers and expansion bellows.

  1. Concept of Thermal Expansion & Strain
  2. Loading concepts in Stress Analysis
    1. Primary/Sustained loads
    2. Expansion loads
    3. Occasional loads
  3. An example to understand the importance of Stress Analysis
  4. Types of various piping analyses
  5. Stress theory; evaluating stresses on piping
  6. Types of Stresses
  7. Piping Code requirements, Code Compliance
  8. Theories of Failure
  9. Displacement Stress Range
    1. Concept of Stress Intensification Factor (SIFs)
  10. Manual estimate & analysis of thermal displacements and expansion movements.
  1. Solutions for Code Compliance
  2. Solution 1
    1. Enhancing flexibility
    2. Expansion Loops, 4-bend, 6-bend & their pros / cons
  3. Solution 2 Role of friction
  4. Solution 3 Concept of Cold Spring
  5. Code compliance on Limiting values of Loads on Equipment
  6. Occasional Loading parameters viz. Wind, Seismic Load & PSV reactions
  7. Solution 4 Expansion joints / Bellows (Basic)
  1. Pipe thickness calculation
    1. For internal pressure
    2. For vacuum or external pressure
  2. Miter thickness calculation
  3. Branch thickness calculation
  4. Pipe span calculation
  5. Pipe operating weight/ Hydraulic weight calculation
  6. Pipe support loads distribution calculation
  7. Selection of variable spring
  1. Piping Supports and Restraints –
    1. Types of Pipe Supports
    2. Functional Pipe Supports
    3. Schematic details of Primary supports
    4. Schematic details of Secondary supports
    5. Schematic of Trunnion support
    6. Use of Vessel Clip supports
    7. Schematic of Cold Piping supports
    8. Schematic of Parasite supports
    9. Schematic of various friction pads
    10. Use of Spring Supports
    11. Types of Spring supports viz. Variable & Constant
  2. Selection of an appropriate spring from a vendor’s catalogue
  1. Data collection for Caesar-II modelling
  2. Overview of CAESAR II functions
  3. CAESAR II Modelling
    1. Understand concepts & provide primary settings viz. ambient temperature, Control Parameters, setting of formula for allowable stress range, input Global coordinates & Title sheet
    2. Generation of Unit file
    3. Modelling components  viz. pipes, bends, various types of branch connections, reducers, valves & specialities
    4. Equipment modelling & concept of connecting nodes
    5. Built-in databases and assorted modelling issues.
    6. Wind loading
    7. Seismic loading
    8. PSV Forces loading
    9. Initial displacements, Equipment settlement
    10. Pipe rack loop design 
    11. Concept of Flange Leakage check
    12. Detailed problem solving of a model, copy / duplicate a model
    13. Expansion joint modelling & evaluation
    14. Modelling of Spring supports
    15. Practical examples using CAESAR II; input, analysis & iterations
  4. Problem Solving Workshop – detailed example where each student works
  5. Independently, applying what is learned to solve a variety of stress and
  6. load problems.
  1. Practices in Caesar – II (Continued from above)
  2. Systems with two temperature cases e.g. One pump working & other on stand-by
  3. Systems with three temperature cases e.g. Tall columns with conditions of commissioning, operations and shut down for maintenance
  4. Last Day Review, Discussions
  5. Evaluation of training outcome

Course completion benefits

Knowledge of each participant in following field is expected to be greatly increased

  1. Concepts of thermal displacements & expansion of metals
  2. Classification of critical / non-critical lines
  3. Equipment Layout concepts in engineering of critical lines
  4. Piping layout concepts of critical lines
  5. Deciding hierarchy of engineering of a plant
  6. Interact with other disciplines viz. Process, Civil, Structural, Mechanical, Rotary & Instrumentation for give & take of relevant information
  7. Formation of systems for stress analysis
  8. Design requirement of critical lines
  9. Use of software viz. Caesar-II for modelling a critical line
  10. Analyse cases of stress analysis as per code requirements with applications of different solutions
  11. Analyse systems with severe loading requirements of Wind, Seismic & Pressure safety valve pop-up reactions
  12. Concepts of limiting loads on static & rotary equipment
  13. Provide adequate number of supports of various types
  14. Concept of vibrations & mitigation of cases
  15. Understand requirement of a spring support and prepare specification for procurement
  16. Know the concept of Expansion Bellows
  17. Generation of Stress Isometrics for issue of final documents for construction / fabrication / erection
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